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There are two different methods that are used today to create a lab grown diamond, HPHT and CVD. HPHT diamonds are created in a closed chamber using extreme levels of "high pressure and high temperature". A tiny diamond "seed" is implanted into a piece of pure carbon, which is then placed in a closed chamber and exposed to a temperature of 1500° Celsius, while approximately 1.5 million pounds of pressure per square inch is applied. The carbon melts at that level of heat which then forms around the seed, growing and transforming into a diamond rough crystal over 4-6 weeks.
The newer, alternative method to grow diamond rough is via CVD (chemical vapor deposition). Similarly, a tiny diamond "seed" is placed into a sealed vacuum chamber, this time heated to 800° Celsius. The vacuum chamber is then filled with different carbon gases, like methane and hydrogen which then form to the diamond seed and begin to crystalize over time. The longer the time in the vacuum, the larger the rough will grow. CVD diamonds share almost identical properties of a mined diamond except they have one advantage: they are all Type IIa which means they contain little to no nitrogen, meaning the stone is purer and can be more desirable. Mined diamonds can also be Type IIa, but only less than 2% of mined diamonds have such characteristics.
Essentially, the science behind lab diamonds mimics nature’s process in the earth but rather in a controlled environment without causing detrimental damage. Note: The technology in this space is always advancing: studies indicate that newer technology using 100% clean energy is on the horizon.